Listening Guide for CD Track 2, “La Comparsa” 0:00-0:05 Initial solo statement of the repeated left-hand figure that serves as the structural basis of the composition. It is played softly, as if the music were at a distance. As mentioned, the left-hand figure is a “clave-d” rhythm consisting of an initial syncopated half over one measure and a straighter half over the next. It outlines an F# minor chord initially, but changes notes (not rhythm) to adapt to different harmonies. 0:06-0:57 First statement of the main theme in the right hand, against the left-hand ostinato. It repeats with minor variations at 0:33 and begins getting louder. 0:57-1:36 The beginning of the counter-theme in a major key (F#), played loudly. It also repeats with minor variations at 1:17. The piece reaches its climax here; the section at about 1:17 is played as loud as the performer can, but soon begins to get softer and 1:36-end A brief coda-like figure to the second theme, also in a major key. It gets quite soft and gradually slows in tempo before ending on a final fermata. Listening Guide to CD Track 3, “Una Viagra que Camine/A Viagra Pill that Walks” 0:00-0:12 Instrumental introduction featuring the cuatro, electric bass, and percussion. The section begins with strings only; percussion enters about 0:07. A Un nuevo medicamento
B Conocido por el Viagra
B En el mundo se consagra
A Como el gran descubrimiento
A Ese formidable invento
C No hay duda que me fascine
There’s no doubt that it fascinates me C Mas si me deja que opine
D Voy a decir en voz alta
D A mí sólo me hace falta
C Una Viagra que camine
0:40-0:46 An instrumental interlude, similar to the second half of the introduction A Una joven elegante
B Que al amar con interés
B No cabe duda que es
A El mejor estimulate
A Resultaría fascinante
C Que sus caricias combine
That her tender touch would combine with C Aunque al final las domine
D Con mordiscos o cosquillas
D Quiero en lugar de pastillas
C Una viagra que camine
1:15-1:24 A second and slightly longer instrumental interlude, this time almost exactly like the introduction except that percussion continues throughout. A La Viagra en forma mundial
Viagra medicine from a global perspective B Ha matado mucha gente
B Es un peligro eminente
A Su uso puede ser fatal
A En cambio la natural
C No hay miedo que me extermine
There’s no danger it will exterminate me C Ni me importa que me incline
It doesn’t matter if I tend to over-use it D Cuando esos brazos me abren
D Si van a matar que me maten
If they’re going to kill me, then let them C Una Viagra que camine
1:50-2:05 Cuatro solo, improvising over the bass, percussion, and rhythm guitar. The solo ends about 2:01, and is followed by a more static pattern similar to the introduction A Quiero decirle al usuario
B Que de la Viagra no abuse
B O tendrá cuando la use
A Un efecto secundario
A La humana por el contrario
C Además de que cocine
Besides the fact that it knows how to cook C Puede usted llevarla al cine
D Y hasta bailar un bolero
D Razón por la cual prefiero
C Una Viagra que camine
2:35-2:40 Brief instrumental coda, similar to the introduction. Listening guide for CD Track 4, “Controversia” 0:00-0:06 The background musical group plays a brief introduction in C major. The pulse is triple meter. Various string instruments can be heard (laúd, guitars) in addition to percussion (conga and bongo drums, güiro). The accompaniment suddenly stops and continues more sparsely, out of time, as Justo Vega begins to sing. 0:06-0:30 Vega intones his first two lines (0:06-0:13), then apparently can’t decide how to proceed. The backup band enters in time again, covering for him until he continues at 0:19, repeating the first two lines (0:19-0:24) and singing two more. Note the stock chord sequence that the band uses behind the singer as they improvise, something like I- ii-IV-V-III-VI-II-V. It invariably ends on the dominant chord. A [JV] Donde el zéfiro que gira
B Mueve la palma real
B Columnata tropical
A Que por la lluvia suspira
0:31-0:34 A brief fill by the band in time as Vega invents his next line of poetry. 0:34-0:41 Vega finishes the first half of his décima and begins the second half. A Se eleva la voz guajira
C De nuestra revolución
0:41-0:44 Another brief instrumental interlude, lending credence to the idea that the singer may be thinking of the poetry here as two four-line segments (ABBA and CDDC) hooked together by a two-line AC segment. 0:46-0:58 Vega finishes a complete décima in this segment; an impressed audience gives C Dándole de corazón
D Con amistad y con nombre
D La bienvenida a los hombres
C Progresistas del Japón
0:57-1:04 The band plays a few stock phrases, giving Adolfo Alfonso time to consider how he will reply to this eloquent prose. The chords are simpler than under the 1:05-1:17 Alfonso decides to make fun of his opponent by discussing his ability to charm women, while alluding obliquely to the Japanese camera crew. He first sings a A [AA] Y tú por ser tan dulzón
B En esto de improvisar
B Eres capaz de endulzar
A A casi todo el Japón
1:22-1:43 Alfonso now changes tack slightly, poking fun at Vega by virtue of his age while continuing the same theme. The audience applauds the end of his décima. A Siendo un viejo en tu expresión
C Todo lo joven palpita
C Y así con esa carita
D Eres sin perder la calma
D Capaz de robarle el alma
C A cualquier japonecita
1:46-1:52 Vega begins the first line of a response, but is forced to stop because he cannot immediately think of a rhyme that continues it. Alfonso yells out “¿así? (really?) at the A [JV] ¿Así? Con esta vejez
B No hay joven que me redoble
1:52-2:24 Vega discards his initial B line in the segment below, using a different phrase that he apparently finds easier to rhyme. However, Alfonso cuts in and “steals” the rhyme beginning on line three (Tus brazos no tienen fuerzas). This initiates the tira tira section in which there are multiple attempts to steal the rhyme away from the other singer. Here Vega betters his opponent temporarily, managing to wrest back the décima A [JV] Con esta vejez
B No hay joven que me retuerza
B [AA] **Tus brazos no tienen fuerza
A Ni tu mente lucidez
A [AA] **¡Tírate de una vez!
C [JV] **Me tiro pero despierto
[JV] **I’ll let you have it, but carefully C Si te tiras quedas muerto
D Para iniciar el combate
D Yo aprendí mucho karate
C Con un japonés experto
2:29-2:41 The tira tira continues here. This back-and-forth results only in a four-line stanza that incorporates karate terminology. Rather than continuing it, the opponents choose to abandon it in favor of a fresh décima below. A [AA] Yo de un muracán te quiebro
[AA] I’ll break you with a muracán hit B [JV] **Y yo más rapidamente
B Te pego un tuto en la frente
Would give you a tuto chop in the face C Y te disloco el cerebro
2:43-3:19 Alfonso begins another décima here, but is forced to repeat the first line in order to think of an appropriate line B. This gives Vega the chance to snatch away the verse beginning with line three (Yo parto una palma en dos). The snatching occurs twice more, with Alfonso the victor, as he is able to finish the décima. It is a masterful linguistic accomplishment and also belittles his opponent as he manages to suggest that Vega’s wife gets rough with him in the bedroom. The audience laughs in appreciation. A [AA] Ya tu no eres tan ligero
[AA] You’re not limber enough any more B Para irte el karate en pos [2x]
B [JV] **Yo parto una palma en dos
[JV] **I can still cut a palm tree in two A De un puñetazo certero
A **[AA] Éste no es tan karatero
C Ni fuerte como se pinta
C [JV] **Que no? Yo tengo la cinta
D De cuarto dan y te parto
D [AA] **A tí te dan en el cuarto
C Que es una cosa distinta!
3:24-3:51 Final décima, ending on a note of friendship and reconciliation. A [JV] Mira, deja la jarana
B Y canta con seriedad
B Porque en Cuba la verdad
A Es lo que méritos gana
A [AA] Que viva al arte que hermana
C A los pueblos en su acción
C [JV] Que viva la estrecha unión
D De los hombres sin fronteras
D [AA] Que vivan nuestras banderas
C [JV] Vivan Cuba y el Japón
3:52-end Final instrumental tag and applause. Listening Guide for CD track 1, Afro-Cuban Güiro Music 0:00-0:03 The akpwon enters alone, introducing Song #1, “Moyuba, moyuba oricha.” This song is general, addressing all the orishas, as noted in Chapter 1. 0:04-0:06 The chorus sings an antiphonal response to the first song. The bell enters simultaneously, beginning with two quarter-note pulses. Both the lead section and the choral response section last one full clave length (what we might think of as two measures), and thus that the song overall lasts for two claves (or four measures). 0:06-0:12 The akpwon repeats the initial solo melody of Song #1 in variation, followed by the same choral response. During the akpwon’s second entrance, the full percussion battery, including chéqueres and conga drum, begin playing. At 0:12-0:16 we hear the third call-response repetition of Song #1. 0:17-0:22 Song #2 begins, the other song to all orichas learned in Chapter 1. The akpwon sings the full iteration: Iba oricha, iba layeo, ago moyuba. 0:22-0:29 The chorus enters, singing their response to Song #2. They in turn are answered by the akpwon and respond again with the same melody at 0:27. 0:30-0:59 At 0:30 the akpwon introduces Song #3, specifically dedicated to Elegguá. He initially sings a very free, embellished version. Note that this song is longer than the previous two, extending over six claves. The chorus enters with a simpler and more standard version of the same song at 0:44, which corresponds to the transcription above. Its lyrics: Ibara ago moyuba, ibara ago, ago moyubara omo ode koni kosi bara ago, ago 0:59-1:27 The akpwon introduces Song #4, also to Elegguá. Note that there is an interesting transitional moment: song #3 begins on the “three-side” of the 6/8 clave pattern (the side beginning on the downbeat of the measure). Song #4, however, begins on the “two-side,” and thus the akpwon is forced to improvise a few notes for half a clave and only thereafter enters with the new song: Ichon chon abe, ichon chon abe odara koroni leyo baba emi ichon chon abe. Song #4 is tricky, since it actually has two choral responses: a simple, low response (Ichon chon abe) such as that heard at 1:07 and 1:12, appropriate when the akpwon ends the melody low, and a longer restatement of the entire song, required when the akpwon ends his melody high. The latter occurs at 1:17. 1:27-1:44 Song #5 begins, the third dedicated to Elegguá. Again the akpwon sings a melodically free version at first (though using roughly the same words); the chorus enters with a more standard version at 1:36. The lyrics: Echu-o Elegbara e, Elegbara moforibale Elegbara e. It is sung only one time each by akpwon and chorus. 1:44-1:59 Song #6 begins, the last to Elegguá. This melody is also brief; the akpwon’s rendition enters at 1:44 and the choral response at 1:52: Elegguá Elegguá, Elegguá Elegguá o, bembe a ta a lafi el Elegguá. 1:59-2:22 Song #7 begins in praise of Oggún, a warrior god of the forge; it is a long melody, five claves in length. Again the akpwon enters first, followed by the chorus at 2:11: E e iyekua, E e iyekua keye keye modan sere Oggún alado oricha. 2:22-2:31 Song #8 enters, with chorus responding at 2:27. This piece is intended as a segue into Song #9, below. Its lyrics, Okan lara orisha leyo baba mi leyo, refer to all the warrior orichas (Elegguá, Oggún, Ochosi). 2:32-3:14 Song #9 begins, dedicated to Oggún, the lyrics of which are Onile, onile, onile, onile arere mariwo Oggún baba lachenche. The chorus enters at 2:39. The akpwon enters again at 2:48, the chorus at 2:57. The akpwon initiates a shorter or “montuno-like” version of the same song at 3:05 with the lyrics Arere mariwo Oggún 3:15-3:31 Song #10, the first to Ochosi, a warrior deity and hunter. The lead singer begins this segment, followed by the chorus at 3:18; their alternation repeats at 3:23 and 3:27. Ochosi ai lo da ala malaode. 3:31-3:39 Song #2 to Ochosi, Ire ire, o de mata ode ode. 3:39-3:55 Song #3 to Ochosi, Yambeleke ilodo odemata kolona. 3:55-4:12 Song #1 to Inle, a deity associated with medicine and healing: O Inle, o Inle o Inle, ayaya o Inle. The song alternates between lead and chorus three times. 4:12-4:46 Song #2 to Inle, and the final song of the series: O Inle kele ago lona, ago lona Inle made. The chorus enters against the lead voice at 4:19 with the phrase O Inle kele ago lona, and again at 4:23, 4:27, 4:31, and 4:35. Listen to the way this chant enters on the second stroke of the bell rather than the first (the third eighth note of the “three side”), making it rather complicated to perform. Listening Guide for CD Track 6, the creole salve “India del agua” 0:00-0:06 Enerolisa Núñez begins to sing unaccompanied, introducing the first song with the phrase “Lo’ marinero’ son del agua” (sailors come from the water) followed by choral response “marinero’, ay ombe, marinero’ ” (ay ombe is a common affective exclamation in the Dominican Republic and in Colombia). Notice how the soloist starts singing on the same pulse on which the chorus responsorial ends. This type of overlap is common in the singing of some ethnic groups from West Africa. 0:06-0:12 Núñez sings another line, “Ay, eso no se le hace, ay ombe” (ay, you shouldn’t do that) and the chorus repeats their antiphonal response. 0:12-0:18 Núñez continues with the line Ay, a ningún hermano, ahora (ay, to any brother, now), followed by the chorus. A single pandero enters with what might be considered the central clave pattern of this salve (see the “Pandero 1” and “Pandero 1 variation” lines below in Fig. 3.12). The 6/8 rhythm sounds similar to the bell part heard in CD track 1 and also stretches over a two-measure phrase, but contains fewer notes. The pandero rhythm might be thought of as five-stroke variant of the seven-stroke bell pattern found in CD track 1; it is certainly related to other forms of “claved” music from Africa and the Caribbean. The pandero’s pattern repeats four times as the soloist and chorus complete one full melodic cycle. Listen closely for the muted yet resonant sound of the thumb hitting the drum surface “on the rebound” as it turns. This is represented by the open tone in the “Pandero 1 variation” line. 0:19-0:24 A second pandero enters with an interlocking pattern (“Pandero 2” line in Fig. 3.12), over which Núñez continues with the line “Ay, marinero’ somo’ ahora” (we’re all sailors now), to which the chorus responds. The second pandero rhythm is mixed in the opposite stereo track from that of the first, so you may be able to hear it more clearly using headphones by panning the balance back and forth on your stereo. 0:25-0:30 Núñez sings “Ay, y en el mar andamo’, ay ombe” (ay, into the ocean we go). A third pandero enters doubling the initial clave rhythm. 0:31-1:06 Yet another pandero enters. This thickens the rhythmic texture further as the soloist continues with new verses, in alternation with the chorus. While this sequence of pandero entrances was specially arranged for the recording, it is typical for traditional salve musicians to stagger their entrances one after another. In the segment below, the singers perform six full cycles of the eight-measure melody. The lead lyrics sung by Núñez in this section are the following. 1:06-1:18 Balsié, mongó and güira players enter together as the chorus is finishing its line at the beginning of the clave cycle. The balsié and mongó play open-tones in a two- measure run of eighth- notes (1:06-1:09) before the mongó player establishes his basic pattern. Salve percussionists typically enter in this way, with either an eighth-note run or a dense improvised sequence before establishing the groove with a basic pattern. Listen with headphones to this section to hear the lower drums more clearly. Notice how the pitch of the balsié drum pitch rises through its eighth-note run, the result of pressing the heel of a foot against the drum head. Soloist and chorus alternate two times (for sixteen measures). After its flashy entrance, the balsié player plays more softly and mostly doubles the rhythm of the mongó, but uses a rapid two-handed stroke called a flam, raising and lowering the pitch of the drum head as he plays. Núñez continues singing 1:19-1:40 The musicians play a transition with solo percussion for sixteen claves. In this section the mongó player usually maintains his standard pattern, though in the spaces between the improvisations of the balsié he may insert an eighth-note run or a slight variation. The balsié player improvises more frequently, occasionally accenting pulses with a flam stroke, or playing runs of eighth-notes with altered pitch as described above (for instance at 1:21,1:24 and 1:32). The longer eighth-note sequences often begin on the third stroke of clave, at the end of the first measure. 1:40-2:10 Núñez introduces second song, “Indio soy” (I am an Indian), and continues by singing either “Indio soy” or “Indio é(s)” (she is an Indian) to the antiphonal response “baja el agua” (below the water). In this song the soloist and chorus alternate every measure, but each with stepwise motion creating an implicit I-V chordal sequence over every four measures. As in the first song, the soloist’s entrance often overlaps the chorus. The vocals are accompanied by frequent improvisations on the balsié. 2:10-2:17 The coro drops out, and as the soloist sings “Indio é” one last time the güira, mongó and all but two panderos fall silent as well. The pandero players that continue double on the “Pandero 2” rhythm notated in Fig. 3.12, which has a rest on the downbeat of each measure. The balsié executes a long string of open tones against them while 2:17-2:38 Núñez introduces the third and final song in this medley, “O la India é” (Oh, She Is the Indian). She begins by singing the refrain herself (2:17-2:25), which the Núñez then continues with additional text, followed each time by the new choral Each repetition of the melody lasts four claves or eight measures; in this section the soloist sings variations of the chorus rather than intoning a distinct melody. As the first chorus of song three enters at 2:27, the balsié begins to improvise extensively, filling in space and building up energy through the soloist’s second verse (2:31-2:38). Try to keep time by clapping the missing clave pattern in this section — this will help you hear how the various percussion instruments and voices fit together. 2:39-3:06 The full percussion battery — güira, mongó, and balsié — re-enters along with the chorus under the panderos at the beginning of the clave pattern. Following this, the solo-response sequence repeats two more times. The balsié player alternates many of the runs heard previously, for instance at 2:50 and 2:57. Núñez and her daughter Yenni conclude our listening segment by singing the following lead vocals in alternation. Listening Guide for CD Track 10, “Amores de Colores” (Love of Colors) 0:00-0:23 The paseo or instrumental introduction beginning with a break section (0:00- 0:05) in which horns, bass, and percussion all play the same rhythm. 0:24-1:01 Verse 1 of the cuerpo. Note that the section beginning at 0:37 is sung by the chorus, and then at 0:43 the chorus and lead vocalist sing the verse together in alternation. Horns fill in with short figures between the melodic phrases. For the most part the bass plays a fairly straight rhythm under this and the other verse sections. All the different kinds of love there are 1:02-1:13 An instrumental interlude that features saxes, then trumpets, then a series of rhythmic breaks. This figure repeats in the middle beginning at 1:08. The bass begins to vary its pattern more frequently. 1:14-1:26 A second instrumental interlude. Note how the trumpet line adds in on 1:27-2:15 A rapped section begins over a similar musical background in which the nature of loves of various colors are described. This is a modern, rather non-standard addition to the merengue form, though it does employ call-response singing characteristic of the jaleo. The constant switching between Spanish and English is common in recordings by performers based in the United States. Don’t tell me, Justefino
I don’t know if it’s the first to kill you Go home, domina
“I’ll wait for you,” how traitorous Que cuando feel it, want to get up 2:16-2:31 The tonality switches to major and a sweet female voice begins singing a quote from the old Mexican children’s song “De colores,” quite a radical change of mood. This sort of musical quoting of earlier music is also somewhat unusual. 2:32-3:04 Just as suddenly the song switches back to the original minor and the first formal jaleo section begins. The saxes enter first, then the trumpets over them. The bass gets wilder, sliding and playing pedals more frequently. 3:05-3:41 Another rapped section describing love in various colors. 3:42-4:00 A sudden switch back to the female voice and a chorus singing the merengue version of “De colores” in a major key. 4:01-end The song shifts back to minor and the jaleo section continues, employing Listening Guide for CD Track 15, “Patria Borinqueña” 0:00-0:53 Slow, non-metrical introduction featuring piano, three-part chorus vocals, and Déjame cantarte, borinquen hermosa 0:53-1:14 Instrumental introduction, beginning with a prominent cuatro melody over a percussion break. The percussion instruments end their break and enter in time at 0:59. The cuatro plays the chorus melody twice. 1:15-1:31 Chorus, sung twice in time and with only two-part harmony instead of three. 1:32-1:42 Verse 1, ending with a syncopated percussion break. I want to travel through, visit your people The Criollos de Caguas baseball team Y Luquillo y Culebra, Luquillo y Culebra 2:26-2:36 Verse 4, ending in a percussion break. 2:36-3:16 Four measures of solo percussion followed by an extended instrumental interlude featuring cuatro, piano, and bass. The lead singer comments “Escucha como camina la plena” (Listen how the plena is grooving). Later another singer says “Patria, no puedo vivir sin verte” (My country, I can’t live without seeing you). 3:16-3:36 The beginning of a faster call-response section involving what appear to be more spontaneous, improvised soneos on the part of the lead singer to which the chorus answers “Borinquen hermosa”, “Beautiful Borinquen.” Coamo, Dorado, let’s sing your history With my plena, dear, I’ll sing to you Miranda! [the name of the cuatro player] 3:36-4:02 Cuatro solo; chorus continues singing. 4:02:4:22 Lead vocal enters once again against the chorus. I sing a plena, a bomba to you Listen, how beautiful, I come to sing to you Me voy a ir, me voy pa’ mi viejo San Juan Pa’ la playa de Luquillo me quiero [ir] Y si no le he cantado, si no le he cantado And if I haven’t sung, if I haven’t sung Es por falta de rima y no es por olvido It’s for lack of a rhyme, not because I forgot It was Toñín Romero, it was Toñín Romero 4:50-end Chorus, repeated twice, followed by a coda (beginning at 5:05) consisting of Listening Guide for CD Track 16, “Anacaona” 0:08-0:22 Instrumental introduction, with the melody passing between trumpets and 0:23-0:32 The chorus enters, with trumpets filling between phrases. Listen for the bell patterns played by the timbalero and bongo player. 0:33-0:56 The lead singer, Cheo Feliciano, is featured here. The timbales revert to a quieter cáscara pattern, and the bongo player shifts to playing on the drum heads. De de le le le lo lai lai, get to it! 0:56-1:14 The chorus enters with the same phrase as at 0:23, and it is followed with another free variation of the same lyrics by Cheo Feliciano at 1:06. 1:15-1:24 A brief instrumental interlude in a contrasting key. 1:25-2:09 The montuno begins with a second chorus, a shorter variant of the first. The chorus alternates with improvised soneos from the lead singer over an eight-measure loop of harmony. The bongo player and timbales player start playing bells again. Coro: Anacaona, areíto de Anacaona She dies but doesn’t forgive, Anacaona 2:10-3:43 A piano solo is performed by Larry Harlow. Note that the entire group gets softer and the bongo and timbales players stop playing bells. 3:44-4:21 A repeated horn riff or moña is played here as a way of building excitement
and tension. It begins with the trombones; soon the trumpets enter with a discant figure above the original melody. There are eight phrases in all, then a break. 4:22-5:55 A second montuno section begins. The chorus enters first, alternating with a trombone solo. Then at 5:18 the lead singer replaces the trombone with soneos. Coro: Anacaona, areíto de Anacaona It’s because she was good, that dark woman They say she went into the blaze of fire You like “El son de la loma” [famous song] 5:55-6:19 A second repeated horn melody begins here. The chorus continues behind the Coro: Anacaona, areíto de Anacaona That’s why she headed for the good rumba Mayenye, la rumba está sabrosona 6:50-end An instrumental coda consisting of a varied repeat of the introduction. Listening Guide for CD Track 20, “La tarde” 0:00-0:13 A brief instrumental introduction featuring tres on lead melody, guitar accompaniment, and the claves playing the danzón-style cinquillo rhythm. 0:14-0:53 The first segment of lyrics, sung by Pablo Milanés on lead vocal and Luis Peña on the lower countermelody. Both instruments continue to play, but the tres switches to an arpeggiated style more suited to accompaniment. At 0:51 the minor mode of the harmony switches unexpectedly to major. 0:54-1:19 The second segment of text, sung in a major key and with the same style of Are so many that they run into each other 1:19-1:32 A brief instrumental interlude, with the tres taking the lead once again. 1:33-2:05 Repeat of the second section of text, and a brief final cadence. Listening Guide for CD Track 21, “Que vuelva” 0:00-0:24 Instrumental introduction performed on the electric guitar and electric bass, with synthesized and acoustic percussion. 0:25-0:56 First verse, divided into two equal sections of nearly identical music. Two male voices enter at the outset, singing in parallel thirds. At particular moments the second harmonizing voice drops out, then returns. Anda, ve a decirle que yo estoy sufriendo Say that I can’t take the pain any more Tú que eres su amiga sabes de mi sueños 0:57-1:26 A second musical section begins in a contrasting key, minor rather than major. It is also divided into two halves, with almost exactly the same melody used in each half. For the most part this segment is sung only by the principal singer, except for the final Que no soporto más esta terrible soledad That I can’t stand this solitude anymore 1:26-2:08 A third section begins, at first continuing in a minor key, toward the end Dile que aquí está el hombre que la ama Tell her that here is the man who loves her Que siempre ha sido el dueño de su vida Háblale, dile que yo he sentido engañarla Listening Guide for CD Track 22, “Oye mi canto” 0:00 If you’re proud to be Latino right now stand the f*** up. Double cut, double cut, let’s go. SBK. Alive, we comin’ up, comin’ up. Nina Sky. N.O.R.E, Da-ddy Yan-kee, Gem Star, Gem Star, Big Mato, Big Mato, c’mon, c’mon. 0:23 [CHORUS sung by the Nina Sky duo over reggaeton beat] Boricua [Puerto Rican], morena [dark woman], dominicano, colombiano Boricua, morena, cubano, mexicano 0:43 [N.O.R.E.] You see this is what they want, they want reggaeton (what, what?) They want reggaeton, esto e’ lo que quieren [this is what they want] Toma reggaeton [take reggaeton] (¿qué, qué?), toma reggaeton You see, I'm N.O.R.E., keep my story, my story I always kick it (¿qué? [what?]) when I bone shorty [slang for girl] I slap culo [ass] and listen (¿qué?) [Gemstar] Soy el Gem Estrella [Star] Cuando canto lo que dicen [when I sing what they say] (what?) Una nalgada en el culo, ella grita [a slap on the ass, she yells] (what?) [N.O.R.E.] You see a boricua gotta rep for its own It be Fajardo, San Juan, Bayamón [cities in Puerto Rico] [1:07] [Gem Star] Sol en el campo [sun in the countryside] Santiago [a city], tabaco y ron [cigars and rum] Allá En Puerto Rico con [Over there in Puerto Rico with] Bacardi Limón [N.O.R.E.] Ah, this all that, you can tell Spanky on it The remix to the remix with Yankee on it [Gem Star] Este e’un mofongo [This is a mofongo, a local food made of plantains] Un chin y con N.O.R.E. on it [A little bit of it, and with N.O.R.E on it] Un reggaeton con [A reggaeton with] Gemstar y Big Mato on it Suena el cantinaje [Hear the singing] Para que sientan el encaje [So you feel the groove] Todo’ en la pista [Everybody on the dance floor] Muévanse contra el salvaje, ye-eh [move against the savage, ye-eh] Ziggity Daddy Yankee give it to them, ye-eh Esto es lo que ringa en la calle, eh [This is what’s ringing in the street] Todos mis latinos en lo bloque [All my Latinos on the block] Oye mi canto con el [Listen to my song with] N.O.R.E. ahora [now] Dem Bow Mueve ese bum-bum-bum [move that butt] Mami no pierda el asiento [Baby, don’t lose your seat]. Who’s this?: Da-ddy! [2:02, N.O.R.E.] And this, the first time it’s ever been done Because there's never been a rapper doin’ a reggaeton album And he a veteran, padrino [godfather], while layin’ At the scene-o No matter your race because you know you’re Latino Ye-eh, todos mis latinos en lo bloque [All my Latinos on the block] Oye mi canto con el [Listen to my song with] N.O.R.E. ahora [now] Dem Bow Mueve ese bum-bum-bum [move that butt] Mami no pierda el asiento [Baby, don’t lose your seat]. Who’s this?: Da-ddy! [Big Mato, 2:42] Venga a ver, venga a ver [Come see, come see] Lo que tengo yo para tí [What I have for you] Ya siento que sin tí no puedo vivir [I feel that without you I can’t live] Mami [baby] mami, mami mami hey, hey, hey, hey Mira, con mundo, linda, yo le canto [Look, I sing with the world, beautiful] Mira, un saludo a mi hermano [Look, a shout out to my brother] Yo le mando, mando [I send them, send them] [3:22, N.O.R.E. paying homage to various rappers and reggaeton artists] SBK Da Beast, Gemstar & Mato, Nina Sky (wassup Girls?) Rest In peace, Big Pun, Vala I know you would have loved this Rest in peace to my father, Mambo this is for y’all, yeah Shouts to all the DJ's playin’ that reggaeton early DJ Carmelo, DJ Enough, Tight Sounds, Chris Bucks, Tony Touch Chubby Chub, DJ Cale, Phally Phel, La Mega, Latino Mix, let's go, c’mon Listening Guide for CD Track 23, “Libertad y soberanía” 0:00-0:17 Instrumental introduction, with the accordion on the lead melody for the first ten seconds, followed by the trombones. The cuatro plays a counter-melody in the background in response to the accordion and trombone phrases. Panderetas, the timbales bell, and güiro can be heard clearly. The bass plays a straight half-note rhythm on “1” and “3” of the 4/4 measure, as is common in dance band plenas. 0:18-0:36 First entry of Jiménez on lead vocal. He sings the refrain by himself, setting up the choral entrance at 0:37. The texture becomes thinner as the piano and trombones drop out and the bass shifts to playing shorter quarter notes on 3 and 4 of the 4/4 measure for a time (0:18-0:26). Chordal accompaniment is provided only by the accordion, with an occasional note or two added on the cuatro. Se escucha este canto en la tierra mía [2x] 0:37-0:53 The chorus enters, singing the same text as above. Trombones provide support with syncopated background figures, together with the piano. The bass by this point returns to a straight rhythm on 1 and 3, typical of dance band plena, making the 0:54-1:11 Verse 1, sung by Jiménez alone. The piano, accordion, and cuatro continue to play behind him; only the trombones are silent. El asimilismo pierde terreno día tras día 1:12-1:29 The chorus repeats with the same melodic line and background figures heard 1:29-1:46 A shorter version of the instrumental section that began the piece repeats here, featuring the same accordion and trombone melodies. 1:47-2:04 Verse 2, sung by Jiménez. This is probably the most provocative section of the lyrics in which the author accuses mainstream America of being racist and 2:23-2:40 The third and final verse, invoking Pedro Albizu Campos. Está en el tapete la suprema definición El futuro espera por nuestra liberación 2:41-end The chorus repeats twice, followed by a short version of the instrumental Listening Guide for CD Track 24, “La llaman puta” 0:00-0:53 An instrumental introduction begins the piece that features a freely improvising acoustic bass, a chéquere playing constant eighth notes, and a sparse bell pattern. Chéqueres are an instrument closely associated with Ochún, Afro-Cuban goddess of beauty and physical love. Magia’s voice begins at 0:16. At 0:21, under the line “Loca, carne que invitabatá drums enter as well, adding emphasis to the track’s associations with Santería and Afro-Cuban heritage. 0:53-1:11 A female chorus enters, singing in harmony to the accompaniment of violins. The vocal melody and text are taken from traditional Santería repertoire, specifically fragments of a chant to Ochún. The bell pattern shifts to a recognizably Santería-style pattern for the duration of the chorus section (see Fig. 1.5). A female voice shouts out “Yalodde” at 1:02, a ritual name for Ochún. 1:11-2:06: At 1:11, when the lead vocal enters, the chorus and strings drop out and the accompaniment becomes more sparse once again. The bell pattern and other percussion gradually increase in intensity, playing faster patterns, and a slow descending melody on violin, cello, and acoustic bass enters the mix from 1:31-1:36. The female chorus begins again (1:53-2:06), signaling the end of the second lead vocal. 2:06-2:54 Final verse. The accompaniment here is more harmonic, with a high, repeated violin figure and long cello notes underpinning Magia’s voice through 2:26. Percussion drops out for a short time, then enters sparsely under the strings. Much of this final recitation is doubled, with Magia rapping against a second track of her own voice in order It’s not that it simply isn’t enough You go a thousand and one places, nothing De las puertas que te cierran en la cara Obliged to do what you don’t want to… 2:55-3:52 Instrumental coda. The percussion and melodic instruments come to the fore, especially an improvising violin. Fragments of the earlier chorus and additional group vocals can be heard as well, mostly sung over a single syllable without lyrics. Listening Guide to CD Track 25, “La negra Monguita” (The Foolish Black Woman). Que la gallina me ha volado. Esto no será verso, pero es “verdá.” Soy el negro más lyrical, but it’s true. I am the unluckiest black guy who’s ever had a black woman. mi padre negro, y mi estrella más negra black, my father, and my star blacker than Y para más fatalidad ahora estoy sufriendo And to make matters worse I’m suffering Que ¿qué más me pasa? Casi nada…que se What else has happened? Not much … she ran off with my friend Serafín, who is also también es negro, dejándome la colombina black, leaving my cot empty, and my heart vacía y vacío el corazón. Ay, cómo estoy she left I don’t want to do anything, I can’t desganado, no le entro a la chaúcha, nada. even eat, nothing. Ay, foolish girl, look Ay, monguita, como me ha “ponido.” Se arma el titingó, se arma el titingó. ‘Cause a stretcher will carry you away Foolish girl, that I’ll break open your head Si con el otro un día te llego a encontrar Foolish one, I’m going to rip you to shreds. Listening Guide for CD Track 26, “Alabí Oyó” 0:00-0:13 The song begins with Santos on lead vocal singing the first chant, accompanied by piano and a chéquere marking beats “1-2” and “4-5” of the 6/8 measure. Flute fills in with improvisations following the end of the first vocal phrase at 0:07; cowbell and ride cymbal play Father of the mountaintop, let us see you 0:14-0:27 The chant repeats, with flute responding again and somewhat louder fills on the 0:28-0:35 A third repetition of the chant; all instruments above enter as before behind the voices, and the bass can be heard improvising briefly at 0:32. 0:36-1:29 Batá drums enter here under an extended flute solo, accompanied by a bell pattern similar to the one discussed in CD track 1 (Fig. 1.5), as well as the piano, bass, and a second chéquere pattern. The batá rhythm in this section is called ñongo, one of perhaps thirty common rhythms performers on this instrument must learn. Santos plays all three drums (and all six drum heads!) himself on a stand rather than in a group with other drummers as would be characteristic 1:30-2:46 As the flute solo ends, the piano drops out which calls our attention to the percussion and bass. The bass player takes a solo. The bell pattern in this section is exactly as transcribed in Fig. 1.5. Eventually the piano re-enters, playing only sporadic chords so as not to overshadow the bass. At about 2:13 the bass builds to a climax by playing two notes at once in a high register; against this the piano at 2:23 plays a sparse, syncopated melody instead of chords. One of the chéqueres plays a loud and extended shake at 2:44 that cues in a new section. 2:46- 3:36 The piano enters with a repetitive, syncopated melodic figure as the bass ends its solo and begins to play a straight rhythmic marking mostly beats “1,” “3,” and “5” of the 6/8 measure. The two quijadas are heard in this section. The new texture serves as a platform for the chéquere to take a solo, beginning with a second long shake at 2:51. 3:37- 4:36 Singers begin the second chant, accompanied by a change in harmony and a return to jazz chords on the piano. The batás switch to a new rhythm called oferere which takes its name from a specific chant the pattern often accompanies. This time the vocals are sung in call- response style by the lead singer and a chorus; the latter repeats the lyrical phrase below (a veiled reference to Changó once again, as he is associated with the color red) and is responded to with improvised phrases in Yoruba by Santos in praise of the oricha. One quijada drops out in this section but the other is still heard at various moments, for instance at 3:53. The flute fills with Brilliant red indigo is happy to save us 4:36-4:50 The chant continues, but the musical texture begins to thin as the piano, batás, and various other percussion instruments drop out. Bells jingle in the background, a reference to the ritual bells that hang on the outside of consecrated batá drums used in religious events, and by extension to all Santería ceremony. 4:50-5:19 In this coda segment all instruments except the batás, one chéquere, and the bells drop out. The batá switches to a third and final rhythm, meta meta, said to be Changó’s favorite and one to which he dances with virulent choreography. In ritual contexts this rhythm usually starts out at a moderate pulse and accelerates, but here it remains more or less constant and up- tempo, then fades away. The bell can be heard in the background, marking a particular four- measure repeated pattern against the 6/8 pulse.


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