Carnatica.net2 (bh¯u) in the fourth cakram, v¯eda cakram. Hence it is usually referred to by the mnemonic name “ u”, since there are 4 ❑ numeral for the consonant “bha” is 4 (from the “pa varga”: pa, pha b bha ma)!) The svarams taken (S, sa), catu´sruti ˙rs.abham(R2, ri), s¯ad¯aran.a g¯andh¯aram (G1, ga), ´suddha madhyamam (M1, ma),pa˜ sruti dhiavatam (D2, dhi), kais.iki nis.¯adham (N2, ni). Thus, the mnemonic svara nomenclature for kharaharapriya is ri gi ma dhi ni, showing that besides the notes sa, pa, the notes taken are ri (R2), ga (G1), ma (M1), dhi (D2), ni (N2). The first two syllables “kha - ra” in the name yields the number 22 according to the kat.apay¯adi scheme (that is, kha =2 (from ka, kha g gh ˙n),and ra =2 (from ya ra la va), so 2 2 reversed still gives 22!!). Some believe that the original name of this the prefix “khara” was added to obtain the numeral 22. But kharaharapriya itself has the meaning – priya (beloved of, liked by) hara (slayer of) khara (the demon named khara). with symmetrical tetrachords; intervals are separated by a major tone. The gets is pleasing quality from the even distribution of the notes. The ri – ga, and the dha – ni are in consonance and the interval between sa – ri, ma – pa, and dha – ni are all equal. This facilitates ngatis in sets which can independently interpret the melody, and allow the singer to build asa svarams : ri, ga, dha, ni; a ˙kharaharapriya is approximately equal to the gr¯amam of ancient music, the premordial scale of • kharaharapriya is a sarva svara gamaka v¯ ahata gamakam (ri sa, sa ni, ni dha, dha pa, pa ma, ma ga, ga ri) lends colour to this . Yet, unlike an average r¯agam, kharaharapriya comes out beautifully even without employing much gamakam.
kharaharapriya is a tristh¯ • compositions in kharaharapriya usually begin in sa, ri, pa , ni.
ogams NI dha PA ma GA ri NI da pa dha ni sa ni dha PA ma GA rikharaharapriya admits prayogams ending in the note ni. Only the notes sa, pa enjoy this previlage!, that admits graha bhedam (modal shift of tonic), yielding the m¯el.ams oji (28), nat.habhairavi (20), dh¯ıra´sa˙nkar¯ (29), respectively when the notes ri, ga, ma, pa, and ni are taken as the tonic ¯kharaharapriya corresponds to the Phrygian mode in Greek, the Dorian in Ecclesiastical, the “D” mode in European and the Irak mode in Arab music.
akara mentions that kharaharapriya contains all svarams of eda chants, it is appropriate that this agam suitable for singing at all times. It evokes karun • Among the musical trinity, Saint ty¯ aja is the sole composer who has given full life to khara- harapriya by composing a large number of kr.tis. Neither muttusv¯ami d¯ıks.itar, not ´sy¯ama s¯astri hascomposed in this m¯ el.a r¯agam. Ty¯agar¯aja’s cakkani r¯ajam¯argamu is the most popular composition in kharaharapriya. It is a puzzle why muttusv¯ ami d¯ıks.itar did not compose any kr.ti in kharaharapriya.
The obvious answer is that he composed only in rudrapriya which is “almost” kharaharapriya, except that the note “dha’” is absent in the avar¯kharaharapriya has helped the adasvaram to acquire recognition as a major musical instrument.
exponents like Karaikkuricci Arunachalam, have indulged in this stretches of hours, especially when rendering some weighty ty¯ • pallavi expositions in kharaharapriya are very common. Nowadays, we can hear sung at the concluding segment of a pallavi in kharaharapriya where the artist chooses a number • Balamuraliksrishna has composed a a in five priya-suffixed • There are many folk tunes and . i cindu songs in kharaharapriya. Also, many tiruppugazh hymns are rendered in kharaharapriya. The cine world in south india has its fair share of songs in this r¯upakam g¯op¯alakr.s.n.a bh¯arathi Remark: Professor Sambamurthi mentions that the ty¯ aja kr.i “r¯am¯a n¯ıyed.¯a” is not set in kharahara- kharaharapriya lends itself to a huge number of janya r¯ agams. Many of these janyams are important in their own right. Walter Kaufmann’s ragas of South India lists 132 janyams of kharaharapriya. They are: ol.ika, anil¯aval.i, b¯alacandrika, b¯alagh¯os.i(n.i), nga, cakra prad¯ıpta, candrakala, candraman aval.i, c¯atam, chand¯odhari, ch¯ay¯a ohari, dh¯ırakal.a, dil¯ıpakam, g¯anavasantam, g¯arava simhala, gauri vas- si, ghanaja ghana, grandhaviks.¯epam, han¯okaha, hariharam¯ohini, harin¯ar¯ayan.i, h¯em¯aval.i, ol.avasantam, hindust¯an k¯api, hu´s¯eni, ¯ınakapriya, jan¯and¯ol.ika, jay¯aks.ari, jayama˜njari, jayaman¯ohari, sika, kal.¯anidhi, kal¯asvar¯upi,kalh¯aru, k¯al.ik¯a, al.indi, kaly¯an.a tara˙ngin.i, kaly¯an.a vasantam, kanaka var¯al.i, kannad.a gaul.a, kannad.a var¯al.i, k¯api, k¯api at.aka d¯evag¯andh¯ari, kar.n.¯at.a k¯api,kar.n.¯at.aka k¯api, k¯api, kat.hinya, kar.n.ara˜njani, khil¯aval.i, al.ava´sr¯ı, mall¯aru, mandamari, man.ira˙ngu, ma˜njari, man¯ohari, m¯, maruvadhany¯a´si, ari, pus.palatika, rudrapriya, saind- alaga bhairavi, samkrantanapriya, siddhas¯, svarakal¯anidhi, svarara`njani, udayaravicandrika, varamu Remark: Walter Kaufmann mentions two versions of kaly¯ . a vasantam, one under (the traditional), and another under kharaharapriya. However, the version of the popular k˙ as sung by the Chittoor school with catu´ sruti dhaivatam, would have kaly¯ sa ri ma pa dha ni dha pa ma ni dha ni sa 1. at.h¯an.¯a is more of a phrase-oriented r¯agam with a unique identity. Some texts classify this underdh¯ıra´ 29). Professor S. R. Janakiraman’s recent book contends that at.h¯an.¯a should be placed under kharaharapriya.
2. r¯ıtigaul.a is historically favored to belong to nat.habhairavi m¯ 20.
The Hindusthani t.h¯at.h k¯afi corresponds to kharaharapriya of kar.n.¯at.ik music. The svarams used are: t¯ıvrari, komal ga, ´ suddh ma, t¯ıvra dha, komal ni. vadi is pa, and samvadi is sa. It is an evening . (double svaras) sa sa, ri ri ga ga, ma ma, pa pa is pleasing. In this ng, and ni, dha in the uttar¯ ng should be frequently employed. Ending of ¯ afi rests in sa, ga, pa ni. Pure afi is rarely rendered, and what is presented as uri. You can hear tumri, bhajan, h¯ ori, t.appa, ghazal , or sometimes dhrupad in agams are derivatives of ar, nat.h malh¯ar, s¯ur malh¯ar, r¯amd¯asi malh¯ar, r¯upma˜njari malh¯ar, According to D¯ıks.itar school of asamp¯urn.a m¯el.a paddhati, r¯ag¯a˙nga r¯agam 22 is ´sr¯i.
. am, dha and ni are absent. Only the ¯ permits vakra sa˜nc¯ara. In fact there are two agam gets a beauty by the elongation and gamaka on the note ga.
agam dervived from 22nd a svarams are ri and ni.
sa, ri, ma, pa, ni are the graha svarams.
ama D¯ıks.itar states that ri in the ¯ is both the j¯ıva and ny¯asa svaram. The phrases ri ga ri sa, pa dha ni pa in avarohan • A raga suitable for singing ( . a; auspicious, and suitable for singing in the evening.
ngal.a karam), and is preferred by arams given in Sangita Sampradaya Pradarshini are unique in the sense that there is no ngal.a r¯agam, it is most often heard in concerts, almost invariable, at least very briefly played after the ma˙ sini, the magnum opus work of Subbar¯ ama D¯ıks.itar, lists under ´sr¯ı, a laks.ya g¯ıtam in mat.ya t¯ (without using the note dha), a t¯anam by Venkatamakhin, in mat.yam, a k¯ırtanamby Kumara Ettappa Maharaja (¯adh¯ara tatva vin¯ayaka in ¯adi), a sa`nc¯ari by Subbarama Dikshitar,and four kr.tis of Muttuswami Dikshitar (´sr¯ı m¯ul¯adh¯aracakra vin¯ayaka, ty¯agar¯aja mahadhvaj¯ar¯oha, ´sr¯ıvaralakm aga is entirely different; it is derived from amavardhani), and is audava-samp¯ sri and gauri are two allied ng of Hindusthani resembles karnat.ik ´sri sini discusses the following janyams of the ani, br.nd¯avani, saindhavi, m¯adhavaman¯ohari, madhyam¯avati, sr¯ı varalaks.mi (¯adi) (Muttusv¯ami D¯ıks.itar)ty¯ rin.a mada dritha (¯adi) (Sv¯ati Tirun¯al.)karun.a ceyv¯an (¯adi) (Iriyamman Thampi)ma˙ arul. (r¯upakam) Papanasam Sivan kanaka vela karun.¯alav¯ala (¯adi) (Kotiswara Iyer)adhik¯ aramundarul. (¯adi) (T.Lakshmanan Pillai) end.¯amo (r¯upakam) (subrahmanya Bharathi) Of these, the song, “endaro mah¯ avulu” has a greater frequency in concert halls.
There ares some excellent pallavi expositions in ´ sr¯ı often appears in the segments in a pallavi rendition, or more often, in the anam portion, when all the five ghana r¯ alika svara segment). But, being an auspicious singing. Some prefer to sing the ´sri composition, “bh¯agya laks.mi ngu, pus.palatika, and s¯alagabhairavi are four r¯agams closely related avati is an audava-audava r¯ agam with notes: sa ri ma pa ni sa; sa ni pa ma ri sa. While it sri, the omission of the notes dha and ga in madhyam¯ avati makes a clear distinction.
avati, care should be taken not to touch these notes even slightly. While sri has greater majesty and depth, madhyam¯ avati has greater number of compositions.
ngu is another janyam of kharaharapriya with scale sa ri ma pa ni sa; sa ni pa ma ga ri sa. It avati, but takes the note ga in avaraohan avati. It omits the dha, which is present in ´



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