PROHIBITED LIST INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
The official text of the Prohibited List shall be maintained by WADA and shall be published in English and French. In the event of any conflict between the English and French versions, the English version shall prevail.
This List shall come into effect on 1 January 2011
The 2011 Prohibited List 18 September 2010
THE 2011 PROHIBITED LIST WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE Valid 1 January 2011
All Prohibited Substances shall be considered as “Specified
Substances” except Substances in classes S1, S2.1 to S2.5, S.4.4 and S6.a, and Prohibited Methods M1, M2 and M3.
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES (IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION)
S0. NON-APPROVED SUBSTANCES
Any pharmacological substance which is not addressed by any of the subsequent sections of the List and with no current approval by any governmental regulatory health authority for human therapeutic use (i.e. drugs under pre-clinical or clinical development or discontinued) is prohibited at all times. PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS
Anabolic agents are prohibited. 1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)
b. Endogenous** AAS when administered exogenously: androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol); androstenedione (androst-4-ene-
3,17-dione); dihydrotestosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one); prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA); testosterone
and the following metabolites and isomers: 5α-androstane-3α,17α-diol; 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol; 5α-androstane- 3β,17α-diol; 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3α,17α-diol; androst-4-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3β,17α-diol; androst-5-ene- 3α,17α-diol; androst-5-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-5-ene-3β,17α-diol; 4-androstenediol (androst-4-ene-3β,17β-diol); 5-androstenedione (androst-5-
ene-3,17-dione); epi-dihydrotestosterone; epitestosterone; 3α-hydroxy-5α- androstan-17-one; 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one; 19- norandrosterone; 19-noretiocholanolone. 2. Other Anabolic Agents, including but not limited to: Clenbuterol, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), tibolone, zeranol, zilpaterol.
* “exogenous” refers to a substance which is not ordinarily capable of being produced by the body naturally.
** “endogenous” refers to a substance which is capable of being produced by the S2. PEPTIDE HORMONES, GROWTH FACTORS AND RELATED SUBSTANCES
The following substances and their releasing factors are prohibited: 1. Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents [e.g. erythropoietin (EPO), darbepoetin (dEPO), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers, methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA), peginesatide (Hematide)];
2. Chorionic Gonadotrophin (CG) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) in 3. Insulins; 4. Corticotrophins; 5. Growth Hormone (GH), Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs), Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) as well as any other growth factor affecting muscle, tendon or ligament protein synthesis/degradation, vascularisation, energy utilization, regenerative capacity or fibre type switching;
and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s). S3. BETA-2 AGONISTS
All beta-2 agonists (including both optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited except salbutamol (maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours) and salmeterol when taken by inhalation in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommended therapeutic regime. The presence of salbutamol in urine in excess of 1000 ng/mL is presumed not to be an intended therapeutic use of the substance and will be considered as an Adverse Analytical Finding unless the Athlete proves, through a controlled pharmacokinetic study, that the abnormal result was the consequence of the use of a therapeutic dose (maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours) of inhaled salbutamol. S4. HORMONE ANTAGONISTS AND MODULATORS The following classes are prohibited: 1. Aromatase inhibitors including, but not limited to: aminoglutethimide, anastrozole, androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (androstatrienedione), 4-androstene-3,6,17 trione (6-oxo), exemestane, formestane, letrozole, testolactone. 2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) including, but not
limited to: raloxifene, tamoxifen, toremifene. 3. Other anti-estrogenic substances including, but not limited to: clomiphene, cyclofenil, fulvestrant. 4. Agents modifying myostatin function(s) including, but not limited, to: myostatin inhibitors. S5. DIURETICS AND OTHER MASKING AGENTS
Masking agents are prohibited. They include: Diuretics, desmopressin, plasma expanders (e.g. glycerol; intravenous administration of albumin, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch and mannitol), probenecid; and other substances with similar biological effect(s). Diuretics include: Acetazolamide, amiloride, bumetanide, canrenone, chlorthalidone, etacrynic acid, furosemide, indapamide, metolazone, spironolactone, thiazides (e.g. bendroflumethiazide, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide), triamterene; and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar
biological effect(s) (except drosperinone, pamabrom and topical dorzolamide and brinzolamide, which are not prohibited). The use In- and Out-of-Competition, as applicable, of any quantity of a substance subject to threshold limits (i.e. salbutamol, morphine, cathine, ephedrine, methylephedrine and pseudoephedrine) in conjunction with a diuretic or other masking agent requires the deliverance of a specific Therapeutic Use Exemption for that substance in addition to the one granted for the diuretic or other masking agent. PROHIBITED METHODS
M1. ENHANCEMENT OF OXYGEN TRANSFER The following are prohibited: 1. Blood doping, including the use of autologous, homologous or heterologous
blood or red blood cell products of any origin.
2. Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including,
but not limited to, perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products), excluding supplemental oxygen.
M2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MANIPULATION The following is prohibited:
1. Tampering, or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and
validity of Samples collected during Doping Control is prohibited. These include but are not limited to catheterisation, urine substitution and/or adulteration (e.g. proteases).
2. Intravenous infusions are prohibited except for those legitimately received in
the course of hospital admissions or clinical investigations.
3. Sequential withdrawal, manipulation and reinfusion of whole blood into the
M3. GENE DOPING
The following, with the potential to enhance sport performance, are prohibited: 1. The transfer of nucleic acids or nucleic acid sequences;
2. The use of normal or genetically modified cells; 3. The use of agents that directly or indirectly affect functions known to
influence performance by altering gene expression. For example, Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor δ (PPARδ) agonists (e.g. GW 1516) and PPARδ-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) axis agonists (e.g. AICAR) are prohibited.
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION In addition to the categories S0 to S5 and M1 to M3 defined above, the following categories are prohibited In-Competition: PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES S6. STIMULANTS
All stimulants (including both optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited, except imidazole derivatives for topical use and those stimulants included in the 2011 Monitoring Program*.
Stimulants include: a: Non-Specified Stimulants: Adrafinil; amfepramone; amiphenazole; amphetamine; amphetaminil; benfluorex; benzphetamine; benzylpiperazine; bromantan; clobenzorex; cocaine; cropropamide; crotetamide; dimethylamphetamine; etilamphetamine; famprofazone; fencamine; fenetylline; fenfluramine; fenproporex; furfenorex; mefenorex; mephentermine; mesocarb; methamphetamine(d-); p-methylamphetamine; methylenedioxyamphetamine; methylenedioxymethamphetamine; modafinil; norfenfluramine; phendimetrazine; phenmetrazine; phentermine; 4-phenylpiracetam (carphedon); prenylamine; prolintane.
A stimulant not expressly listed in this section is a Specified Substance. b: Specified Stimulants (examples): Adrenaline**; cathine***; ephedrine****; etamivan; etilefrine; fenbutrazate; fencamfamin; heptaminol; isometheptene; levmetamfetamine; meclofenoxate; methylephedrine****; methylhexaneamine (dimethylpentylamine); methylphenidate; nikethamide; norfenefrine; octopamine; oxilofrine; parahydroxyamphetamine; pemoline; pentetrazol; phenpromethamine; propylhexedrine; pseudoephedrine*****; selegiline; sibutramine; strychnine; tuaminoheptane; and other substances
with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
* The following substances included in the 2011 Monitoring Program (bupropion, caffeine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pipradol, synephrine) are not considered as Prohibited Substances.
** Adrenaline associated with local anaesthetic agents or by local administration
(e.g. nasal, ophthalmologic) is not prohibited.
*** Cathine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5
**** Each of ephedrine and methylephedrine is prohibited when its
concentration in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter.
***** Pseudoephedrine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 150 micrograms per milliliter. S7. NARCOTICS
The following are prohibited: Buprenorphine, dextromoramide, diamorphine (heroin), fentanyl and its derivatives, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine.
Natural (e.g. cannabis, hashish, marijuana) or synthetic delta 9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabimimetics [e.g. “Spice” (containing JWH018, JWH073), HU-210] are prohibited. S9. GLUCOCORTICOSTEROIDS All glucocorticosteroids are prohibited when administered by oral, intravenous, intramuscular or rectal routes. SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR P1. ALCOHOL
Alcohol (ethanol) is prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports. Detection will be conducted by analysis of breath and/or blood. The doping violation threshold (haematological values) is 0.10 g/L. • Aeronautic (FAI)
Unless otherwise specified, beta-blockers are prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports. • Aeronautic (FAI)
Beta-blockers include, but are not limited to, the following: Acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bunolol, carteolol, carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, levobunolol, metipranolol, metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol.
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