MATERIALS REQUIRED BUT NOT SUPPLIED
no interference was observed by the presence of:
Current laboratory instrumentation. Spectrophotometer
UV/VIS with thermostatic cuvette holder. Automatic micro-
pipettes. Glass or high quality polystyrene cuvettes. Deio-
SUMMARY OF TEST
intra-assay (n=10) mean (mEq/l) SD (mEq/l)
Chloride is the major extracellular anion. Sodium and chlo-
Stability: up to expiration date on labels at 15-25°C.
ride together represent the majority of the osmotically
Stability since first opening of vials: ≥ 60 days at 15-25°C.
active constituents of plasma. Chloride is therefore signifi-
inter-assay (n=20) mean (mEq/l) SD (mEq/l)
cantly involved in maintenance of water distribution, osmo-
tic pressure and anion-cation balance in the extracellular
fluid compartment. In both gastric and small and large inte-
Reagent may contain some non-reactive and preservative
stinal secretions, Cl- is the most abundant anion.
components. It is suggested to handle carefully it, avoiding
Chloride ions in food are almost completely absorbed from
a comparison between Chema and a commercially availa-
the intestinal tract. They are filtered from plasma at the glo-
Perform the test according to the general “Good Labora-
meruli and passively reabsorbed, along with Na+, in the
proximal tubules. In the thick ascending limb of the loop
- is actively reabsorbed by the so-called “chlo-
ride pump,” whose action promotes reabsorption of Na+
Serum, plasma heparinate. Separation of cells from plasma
as well. Loop diuretics such as furosemide and ethacrynic
should be prompt. Sweat is a suitable sample.
acid inhibit the chloride pump. Surplus Cl- is excreted in
the urine and is also lost in the sweat. Excessive losses in
Dilute sample urine 1:2 with redistilled water and multiply
sweat, as can occur in hot weather, are normally minimized
by the action of aldosterone, which is secreted by the adre-
This product is made to be used in professional laborato-
nal cortex in response to decrease in plasma Na+ and Cl-.
ries. Please consult local regulations for a correct waste
Hypochloremia is observed in salt-losing nephritis as asso-
ciated with chronic pyelonephritis. In Addison’s disease,
S56: dispose of this material and its container at hazar-
Cl- levels are usually maintained close to normal except in
dous or special waste collection point.
Addisonian crisis, when Cl- as well as Na+ levels may drop
S57: use appropriate container to avoid environmental
significantly. Hypochloremia may also be seen in those
types of metabolic acidoses that are caused by increased
S61: avoid release in environment. Refer to special instruc-
production or diminished excretion of organic acids (e.g.,
diabetic ketoacidosis and renal failure). Persistent gastric
secretion and prolonged vomiting, whatever the cause,
result in significant loss of Cl-, and ultimately in hypochlore-
mia and depletion of total body Cl-. Other conditions asso-
Levinson S.S., Direct determination of serum chloride with
ciated with hypochloremia include aldosteronism, bromide
a semiautomated discrete analyzer, Clin.Chem. 22:273-
intoxication, cerebral salt-wasting after head injury, SIADH,
Mix, incubate at 25, 30 or 37°C for 5 minutes.
and conditions associated with expansion of extracellular
Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, Second Edition,
Read absorbances of standard (As) and samples (Ax)
fluid volume. In metabolic alkalosis, plasma levels of Cl-
tend to fall while HCO - levels increase.
Hyperchloremia occurs with dehydration, renal tubular aci-
dosis, acute renal failure, metabolic acidosis associated
with prolonged diarrhea and loss of sodium bicarbonate,
in diabetes insipidus, in adrenocortical hyperfunction, and
in salicylate intoxication. A slight rise in Cl- level is seen
chloride mEq/l = Ax/As x 100 (standard value)
in respiratory alkalosis. Hyperchloremic acidosis may be a
sign of severe renal tubular pathology. Extremely high die-
tary intake of salt and overtreatment with saline solutions
chloride mEq/l = Ax/As x 100 x 2 (standard value and dilu-
In a study of individuals with hypercalcemia due to either
primary hyperparathyroidism or other causes, plasma Cl-
concentrations were 106 ± 5 mmol/l for cases of primary
hyperparathyroidism compared with 103 ± 3 mmol/l for the
other group. The difference in Cl- levels was believed to be
chloride mEq/24h = Ax/As x 100 x 2 x urine volume
due to the effect of parathyroid hormone on distal tubular
(standard value, dilution factor and diuresis in decilitres)
intake; physiological increase occurs with postmenstrual
diuresis and decrease with premenstrual salt and water
retention, in parallel with increase and decrease of urinary
Na+ level. Massive diuresis of any cause is accompanied by
increased Cl- excretion, as is K+ depletion and adrenocor-
tical insufficiency. Urinary excretion of Cl- decreases when
Each laboratory should establish appropriate reference
losses by other routes are increased, as well as in adre-
intervals related to its population.
nocortical hyperfunction and in postoperative stress syn-
QUALITY CONTROL AND CALIBRATION
Spectrophotometric methods based on the reaction of
chloride ions with HgCNS have been implemented on a
It is suggested to perform an internal quality control. For
this purpose the following human based control sera are
PRINCIPLE OF THE METHOD
QN 0050 CH
QUANTINORM CHEMA 10 x 5 ml
Chloride ions react with mercuric ions, giving available an
with normal or close to normal control values
equal quantity of tiocyanate ions. Tiocyanate ions react
QP 0050 CH
QUANTIPATH CHEMA 10 x 5 ml
with trivalent ferric ions present in solution to form a red
colored complex with an absorbance peak at 480 nm.
If required, a multiparametric, human based calibrator is
AT 0030 CH
For in vitro diagnostic use only.
Please contact Customer Care for further information.
The components of the kit are stable until expiration date
Keep away from direct light sources.
0100: 2 x 50 ml (liquid) blue cap
0500: 4 x 125 ml (liquid) blue cap
If the limit value is exceeded, it is suggested to dilute
Composition: mercury(II) tiocyanate 2.2 mM, mercury(II)
sample 1+9 with distilled water and to repeat the test, mul-
chloride 0.7 mM, iron (III) nitrate 19 mM.
chloride solution 100 mEq/l - 5 ml
Sensitivity/limit of detection (LOD)
the limit of detection is 1.5 mEq/l.
Critérios para doação de sangue e plaquetas por aférese O doador de sangue ou componentes deve ter idade de, no mínimo, 18 anos completos e, Peso : O peso mínimo para um candidato ser aceito para a doação é de 50 kg. Freqüência e intervalo entre as doações Para doação de sangue: 4 (quatro) doações anuais para os homens, e de 3 (três) doações anuais para O inte
J. Phys. Chem. B 2004, 108, 17992-18002 Computational Study of γ -Butyrolactone and Li + / γ -butyrolactone in Gas and Liquid Phases Marco Masia* and Rossend Rey Departament de Fı ´ sica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Uni V ersitat Polite ´ cnica de Catalunya,Campus Nord B4-B5, Barcelona 08034, Spain Recei V ed: July 8, 2004; In Final Form: September 8, 2004 A comprehensive stu